Thursday, June 12, 2014

A sample lesson based on a Common Core standard

I strongly believe that teaching and learning is context-dependent, thus who, where and when matter. Accordingly, I do not agree with standard or one-size-fits-all or textbook-driven lessons which so plague our public schools, and demand for which is behind much Common Core criticism. Yes, Common Core forces teachers to plan lessons and to take into account who they teach, what their students know, what they are like and so on. Yes, Common Core forces a significant change for many teachers and in many schools.

Oh and one other thing. Common Core moves the teaching and learning dynamic from "sage on the stage" to "guide on the side". It becomes more learner-centered and the teacher is more of a coach or a mentor. Many traditional practitioners, or those who believe in top-down approaches are afraid of the loss of power,

I have written elsewhere about the effect of standards-based teaching and learning, aka "outcome-based". Another reason I like Common Core is the overlap with skills-based as opposed to content-based teaching and learning. The difference can perhaps be summarized as:

Content
  • know the numbers 1 - 100
  • understand the value of numbers 1 - 100
Skills
  • count 1 - 100
  • identify numbers 1 - 100
  • identify the subsequent or preceding number for any number 1 - 100
  • count 1 - 100 in 2s, 5,s or 10s
I will discuss skills-based versus content-based teaching and learning in a later post. Please check back.

So here is a 20-lesson plan which addresses the Common Core standard "count 1 -100". Each lesson is fifteen minutes long; I would recommend one on the AM and one in the PM rather than once a day and rather than 20 minutes at once.

1 = whole group, large chart of numbers consecutively 1 - 100 in a 10 x 10 grid, pointer
a) students chant the numbers aloud as a group
b) teacher chooses some students to read a line vertically / horizontally
(students = naming)

2 = whole group, large chart of numbers consecutively 1 - 100 in a 10 x 10 grid
a) briefly review lesson 1a
b) repeat lesson 1b so each student reads a line
(students = naming) (teacher = checking (not evaluating))

3 = small groups of four, each has a small chart of numbers identical to the large chart (numbers consecutively 1 - 100 in a 10 x 10 grid)
a) appoint one student in each group as "leader"; s/he nominates the others in turn to read a line s/he chooses (lesson 1b) - the others will help!
b) repeat so each student has been a "leader" and each has read three lines
(students = naming) (teacher = circulating and checking (not evaluating); advising as necessary)

4 = whole group, large chart of numbers randomly 1 - 100 in a 10 x 10 grid
a) teacher points to each number and students chant the numbers aloud as a group
b) teacher chooses some students to read a line vertically / horizontally
(students = identifying)

5 = whole group, large chart of numbers randomly 1 - 100 in a 10 x 10 grid
a) briefly review lesson 4a
b) repeat lesson 4b so students read a line
(students = identifying) (teacher = checking (not evaluating))

6 = small groups of four, each has a small chart of numbers identical to the large chart (numbers randomly 1 - 100 in a 10 x 10 grid)

a) appoint one student in each group as "leader"; s/he nominates the others in turn to read a line s/he chooses (lesson 5b)
b) repeat so each student has been a "leader" and each has read three lines
(students = identifying) (teacher = circulating and checking (not evaluating); advising as necessary)

7 =  whole group, several large charts, each with 20 numbers randomly chosen 1 - 100 and randomly placed on the chart. (numbers which proved challenging in lessons 1 - 6 could be deliberately chosen and/or repeated)

a) teacher points to a number and students name the number aloud as a group
b) teacher chooses each students to name a number
c) students identify all the numbers on the chart
(students = identifying)

8 = small groups of four, each has a small chart of numbers identical to the large chart (20 numbers randomly chosen 1 - 100 and randomly placed)

a) appoint one student in each group as "leader"; s/he nominates the others in name five numbers s/he chooses
b) repeat so each student has been a "leader" and each has named 15 numbers
(students = identifying) (teacher = circulating and checking (not evaluating); advising as necessary)

9 = repeat lesson 8 but give each group a different chart and every 3 - 5 minutes have groups exchange charts
(students = identifying) (teacher = circulating and checking (not evaluating); advising as necessary)

10 = individual; students each make his /her own chart (lesson 8)
a) groups of four, each student is the "leader" using his/her own chart
b) change groups and repeat
c) change groups and repeat

(students = identifying) (teacher = circulating and checking (not evaluating); advising as necessary)

11 = use the chart from lesson 6; whole
a) teacher points to a number and students name the preceding and succeeding numbers aloud as a group
b) teacher chooses each students to name a number
c) students identify all the numbers on the chart
(students = identifying, identifying preceding and succeeding numbers)

12 = whole; repeat lesson 11 but with the charts from lesson 7

13 = groups; repeat lesson 11 but with the charts from lesson 8
(teacher evaluating students accuracy in naming, identifying numbers)

14 = groups; repeat lesson 11 but with the charts from lesson 10
(teacher evaluating students accuracy in naming, identifying numbers)

15 = repeat lesson 11 with the charts from lesson 7
a) students give the the preceding and two succeeding numbers
(identify sequences) ((teacher = circulating and evaluating students accuracy in naming, identifying numbers, identifying series)

16 = whole; chart from lesson 1
a) group chants multiples of 2, 1 - 100 (teacher uses term "multiple" as a label without explaining; students acquire the term without concept confusion and thus acquire the concept)
b) group chants multiples of 5, 1 - 100
c) group chants multiples of 10, 1 - 100

17 = whole, repeat lesson16
a)  review lessons 16a - c
b) teacher chooses students to name multiples of 2, 5, or 10
c) teachers chooses all students to name multiples of 2, 5, or 10

18 = whole; using charts from lesson 7
a) identify multiples of 2, 5, 10 on the charts

19 = groups, using charts from lesson 8
a) repeat lesson 18a
(teacher = circulating and evaluating)

20 = groups, using charts from lesson 10
b) repeat lesson 18a
(teacher = circulating and evaluating)

Students are now able to
  • identify numbers 1- 100
  • recognize numbers 1 - 100
  • identify preceding and succeeding numbers 1 - 100
  • conduct a small group exercise / discussion
  • identify multiples of 2, 5, 10 in the range 1 - 100

They have acquired the concepts of :
  • series (for later use)
  • multiples (for immediate work on 2, 5, 10 times tables)
  • even and odd numbers
  • greater and less (for later work on comparatives leading to inequalities)
  • ordinal numbers
  • prime numbers (2, 3, 5, 7 at least implicitly, for later use)

Repeat for multiples of 4 and 8, then 3, 6 and 9. (Leave 7 to last!)

Repeat but count down (backwards) instead.

Repeat for numbers 1 - 1000.

Repeat with numbers in different fonts and styles, or in words instead of figures.

Students are prepared for money, decimals and the metric system.

If you have blank business-cards or playing cards, each student can have a pack and play SNAP or modified dominoes. (Get students to make the cards.)

With this approach, students take responsibility for their own learning and gain experience in leading groups and in working collaboratively.

Teachers conduct multiple evaluations of each student against multiple objectives without a single test.

This is one reason why I like Common Core. Throw away the textbook and teach!

1 comment :

Terry Warren said...

Very useful example and explanation of a series of related lessons. Unfortunately, this is neither how Common Core has been rolled out nor how it is understood in many schools. In far too many instances, a content-based delivery system is still being utilized to disseminate what is designed to skills-based.